Cesarean delivery is defined as the delivery of a fetus through surgical incisions made through the abdominal wall (laparotomy) and the uterine wall (hysterotomy).
In 2014, 32.2% of women who gave birth in the United States did so by cesarean delivery. The rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 to 2014 without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused. 
Cesarean deliveries were initially performed to separate the mother and the fetus in an attempt to save the fetus of a moribund patient. They subsequently developed to resolve maternal or fetal complications not amenable to vaginal delivery, either for mechanical limitations or to temporize delivery for maternal or fetal benefit. The leading indications for cesarean delivery (85%) are previous cesarean delivery, breech presentation, dystocia, and fetal distress.
Maternal indications for cesarean delivery include the following:
Fetal indications for cesarean delivery include the following:
Indications for cesarean delivery that benefit the mother and the fetus include the following:
There are few contraindications to performing a cesarean delivery. In some circumstances, a cesarean delivery should be avoided, such as the following:
ACOG/SMFM guidelines for prevention of primary cesarean delivery
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) released joint guidelines for the safe prevention of primary cesarean delivery. These include the following :
The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. 
ConclusionReducing caesarean delivery rates in Mexico will require more than public awareness, guidelines and policies. First, an improved data collection and quality assurance system is necessary to better understand the consequences of high caesarean delivery rates over time. Second, increased oversight and regulation of private insurance companies is needed to reverse the perverse economic incentives that contribute to a very high caesarean delivery rate in the private sector. Finally, the medical and public health community must take an active role in educating the next generation of obstetricians and gynaecologists, the public and the insurance industry on the well documented benefits of vaginal delivery for both women and their newborns. Multilevel interventions, such as those available to improve quality of care for member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 26 are urgently needed to safely reduce the high rate of caesarean delivery in Mexico, particularly in private-sector hospitals. 
Student,Department of Pharmaceutical science, North South University.
Highly passionate for making a difference in to the community by providing quality health knowledge